Warfare Warfare is a prominent theme in Beowulf.
Requirements for successful manipulation[ edit ] According to psychology author George K.
Simonsuccessful psychological manipulation primarily involves the manipulator: Knowing the psychological vulnerabilities of the victim to determine which tactics are likely to be the most effective.
Having a sufficient level of ruthlessness to have no qualms about causing harm to the victim if necessary. Consequently, the manipulation is likely to be accomplished through covert aggressive relational aggressive or passive aggressive means.
Braiker identified the following ways that manipulators control their victims: Partial or intermittent negative reinforcement can create an effective climate of fear and doubt.
Partial or intermittent positive reinforcement can encourage the victim to persist - for example in most forms of gambling, the gambler is likely to win now and again but still lose money overall.
According to Simon[ edit ] Simon identified the following manipulative techniques: It is hard to tell if somebody is lying at the time they do it, although often the truth may be apparent later when it is too late. One way to minimize the chances of being lied to is to understand that some personality types particularly psychopaths are experts at the art of lying and cheatingdoing it frequently, and often in subtle ways.
This is a very subtle form of lying by withholding a significant amount of the truth.
This technique is also used in propaganda. Manipulator refuses to admit that they have done something wrong. An excuse made by the manipulator for inappropriate behavior.
Rationalization is closely related to spin. This is a type of denial coupled with rationalization. The manipulator asserts that their behavior is not as harmful or irresponsible as someone else was suggesting, for example, saying that a taunt or insult was only a joke.
Selective inattention or selective attention: Manipulator refuses to pay attention to anything that may distract from their agenda, saying things like "I don't want to hear it".
Manipulator not giving a straight answer to a straight question and instead being diversionary, steering the conversation onto another topic.
Similar to diversion but giving irrelevant, rambling, vague responses, weasel words. Manipulator throwing the victim onto the defensive by using veiled subtle, indirect or implied threats. A special kind of intimidation tactic. A manipulator suggests to the conscientious victim that they do not care enough, are too selfish or have it easy.
This usually results in the victim feeling bad, keeping them in a self-doubtinganxious and submissive position. Manipulator uses sarcasm and put-downs to increase fear and self-doubt in the victim. Manipulators use this tactic to make others feel unworthy and therefore defer to them. Shaming tactics can be very subtle such as a fierce look or glance, unpleasant tone of voice, rhetorical comments, subtle sarcasm.
Manipulators can make one feel ashamed for even daring to challenge them. It is an effective way to foster a sense of inadequacy in the victim. More than any other, this tactic is a powerful means of putting the victim on the defensive while simultaneously masking the aggressive intent of the manipulator, while the manipulator falsely accuses the victim as being an abuser in response when the victim stands up for or defends themselves or their position.
Playing the victim role: Manipulator portrays themself as a victim of circumstance or of someone else's behavior in order to gain pitysympathy or evoke compassion and thereby get something from another. Caring and conscientious people cannot stand to see anyone suffering and the manipulator often finds it easy to play on sympathy to get cooperation.
Playing the servant role: Cloaking a self-serving agenda in guise of a service to a more noble cause, for example saying they are acting in a certain way to be "obedient" to or in "service" to an authority figure or "just doing their job".
Manipulator uses charmpraiseflattery or overtly supporting others in order to get them to lower their defenses and give their trust and loyalty to the manipulator. They will also offer help with the intent to gain trust and access to an unsuspecting victim they have charmed.
Projecting the blame blaming others: Manipulator scapegoats in often subtle, hard-to-detect ways. Often, the manipulator will project their own thinking onto the victim, making the victim look like they have done something wrong.
Manipulators will also claim that the victim is the one who is at fault for believing lies that they were conned into believing, as if the victim forced the manipulator to be deceitful.
All blame, except for the part that is used by the manipulator to accept false guilt, is done in order to make the victim feel guilty about making healthy choices, correct thinking and good behaviors.Psychological warfare is also utilized by the United States on civilians and the general population of liberated territories.
This branch of psychological operations is known as consolidation (Pease 9). Editor’s Note: This is the second installment in “Ministry of Truth,” a special series on state-sponsored influence operations.
Read the first installment here.. China introduced the concepts of public opinion warfare, psychological warfare, and legal warfare when it revised the “Political Work Guidelines of the People’s Liberation Army” in Psychological warfare, also called psywar, the use of propaganda against an enemy, supported by such military, economic, or political measures as may be required.
Such propaganda is generally intended to demoralize the enemy, to break his will to fight or resist, and sometimes to render him. Get this from a library! Paper bullets: great propaganda posters, Axis & Allied countries WWII, with an essay on psychological warfare.
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Sex and Psychological Operations. by: Herbert A. Friedman Warning! These historical wartime images are sexually explicit. This is a military reference site for adults only.